Current status of domestic and foreign research and development of industrial clean rooms
In products or scientific research, in order to prevent harmful factors from polluting the working environment, emerging clean technologies are widely used in industries with strict environmental requirements. The rapid development of modern science and technology and the demand for precision, cleanliness, reliability and nano-levels of related products have prompted the increasing environmental requirements of industries such as electronics, medical, pharmaceutical, aerospace, aviation and food. Rapid development under strong market demand.
In the early 1920s, the United States had relevant scientific research on clean technology. In the 1950s, the United States successfully developed a high-efficiency air particle filter (HEPA), and made the first fly-by of air purification technology. The concept of room began its epoch-making historical mission. In the 1960s, the United States summarized some of the problems existing in the airflow organization of conventional industrial clean rooms, and developed and launched the world ’s first unidirectional industrial clean room (then known as laminar industrial clean room). This achievement has a milestone significance for air cleaning technology. In the early 1960s, the military industrial cleanliness standard (FS-209) was formally implemented in the United States. Since then, countries around the world have followed this standard, resulting in the establishment of the International Clean Technology Standards Committee, thereby regulating the national industrial clean room environment standard ISO / TC 209). At the beginning of the 20th century, the International Industrial Clean Room Environmental Standards Organization formulated the world's first industrial clean room "Air Cleanliness Classification" (ISO 14644-1). In the 1970s, industrial clean technology was applied and popularized, especially in the electronics industry. Countries around the world attach great importance to industrial clean rooms and have formulated corresponding purification standards and measures, which make some clean technologies have different characteristics for different industries. On the reverse side of the industrial clean room structure, factory-shaped products began to appear, and the management of the flow and logistics of industrial clean rooms was standardized.
The development of biological science research and medicine urgently needs new technology to solve the impact of its environmental factors, which promotes the inevitability of reference and application of industrial clean technology. As early as the 1960s, Britain had used carbolic acid in the operating room to eliminate microorganisms in the air, and the infection rate fell from 63% to 18% after surgery. This is the germination of the concept of microbial pollution control. In the 1960s, the United States began research and exploration of bio-industry clean rooms, and the world ’s first sterile surgical industrial clean room was built in a hospital in New Mexico; a plastic surgeon in the United Kingdom After improving the air supply system of the purified air conditioner to prevent infection caused by microorganisms in the air, an industrial clean room similar to vertical unidirectional flow was built in June 1966.
In the late 1960s, the World Health Organization formally formulated the "Pharmaceutical Production Quality Management Standards" (GEP), which has received extensive attention from all countries in the world. The GEP of each country has made strict regulations on the air cleanliness of pharmaceutical production. . This has greatly inhibited the mutual infection of drugs and cosmetics.
After the 1970s, bio-cleaning technology began to enter a new era, and it has been widely used in aerospace, aviation, pharmaceutical industry, medical industry, food industry, electronics industry, biological laboratory, and scientific research. Practice has proved that air cleaning Technology has played a key role in these industries.
The application and research of China's air cleaning technology is later than that of foreign countries. In the 1960s, China's air cleaning technology began to start. In 1965, China's first electronic industrial clean room was built, which opened up China The prelude to the development and application of air cleaning technology. With the successful development of China's high-efficiency filter equipment, semiconductor electronics companies, aviation gyroscope companies and precision processing companies have begun to build industrial clean rooms that purify air to reduce the impact of environmental dust particles on their progress and reliability.
With the rapid development of science and technology, the integration of circuits has become more intensive and the application of nanotechnology has made the electronics industry's requirements for cleanliness higher and higher. In this regard, China introduced foreign-funded enterprises in the 1990s. Air cleaning technology is widely used in production workshops. Due to the wide application of air cleaning technology and the extensive use of related industrial clean rooms, China's air cleaning technology has made great progress in actual factories. In response to the characteristics of the pharmaceutical industry and strict environmental requirements, China made detailed regulations on the production environment indicators of the pharmaceutical industry in 1988.
(GMP) specifies the cleanliness indicators of different pharmaceutical production pharmaceutical workshops. This plays an important role in the healthy development of China's pharmaceutical industry. In terms of medical treatment, clean operating rooms were built in the 1980s in China. For example, from 1980 to 1990, Shanghai Changzheng Hospital did 337 cases of infections in industrial clean room operating rooms.
With the rapid development of modern science and technology, higher and newer requirements have been put forward for the industrial clean room environment, not only strict control requirements such as temperature, relative humidity, anti-static, anti-vibration, but also in air purification From the control of dust particles to the control of molecular pollution, chemical pollution, microbial pollution, and the requirement to provide ultra-pure gas and ultra-pure water.
With the development of air cleaning technology and central air conditioning systems, in order to meet the strict requirements of various industries on the environmental indicators of clean areas, purified air conditioning systems came into being. With the increasingly strict requirements on science and technology and the processes of various eras, the effective operation of various electrical appliances in the central purification air conditioning system and the control of environmental parameters in the clean area have been realized.
The pharmaceutical industry has strict requirements on cleanliness, temperature, humidity and pressure, so that the central purification air-conditioning system of the pharmaceutical factory has its own characteristics compared with the general central air-conditioning system; however, the development process of automatic control and the automaticness of the general central air-conditioning system The control is the same. The early central air-conditioning system used a relay control device, which has been eliminated by the market because of its many and complicated wiring, large size, large power consumption, high failure rate, poor reliability and maintainability. With the development of computer technology and ultra-large integrated circuits, single-chip control technology is gradually widely used, but due to factors such as poor reliability and anti-interference, it is not suitable for the control of industrial system equipment. With the continuous development of science and technology such as automatic control technology and computer technology, in the 1960s, American Digital Equipment Corporation developed the world's first programmable controller (PLC), due to its less wiring, small size, and scalability Strong, low power consumption and strong reliability and maintainability, etc., and gradually emerged and applied to industrial field control. Because the central air-conditioning system uses many execution devices and sensors, it needs to control time-varying nonlinearity, distributed parameters, and multi-variables. The emergence of PLC greatly meets the automation control of its complex control technical indicators.
With the research and development of modern control technology and theory, China has applied intelligent control strategies such as fuzzy control, intelligent algorithm, genetic algorithm and data mining technology to industrial control, which brings to the control strategy and control scheme of the central air conditioning system New ideas.