Fire protection design for clean rooms

Industrial modular Clean Room time:2022/08/29 17:46:44 click:20

With the development of national economy in our country, the progress of the society and the improvement of people's living standards, clean room has been widely used in electronics, biological medicine, precision instrument manufacturing and so on all walks of life, because of the clean room in terms of temperature, relative humidity and cleanliness of a huge advantage, its importance is also more and more people know and accept. How to prevent the occurrence of fire accidents in clean rooms, we believe that the key is to make the source of building fire design good, in order to eliminate the generation of congenital fire hazards. In this paper, how to do a good job in the fire prevention design of clean room, to talk about some opinions, for everyone to correct.

Fire protection design for clean rooms

First, the basic characteristics of the clean room

The so-called clean room refers to the workshop with special purification requirements for the building in the production process. Its basic characteristics are: 1, for reinforced concrete structure, workshop more divided into a number of small rooms; 2, often in a closed state, less Windows less doors; 3, the plant equipment is expensive, afraid of high temperature, avoid water; 4, the factory staff is small, is not conducive to the discovery of fire and initial fire treatment; 5, the internal structure is complex, the channel twists and turns.

Two, the fire characteristics of the clean room

1, smoke heat accumulation, spread through many ways.

Clean rooms are generally in a closed state, with few doors and Windows. When fire occurs, smoke heat is not easy to disperse outward, resulting in smoke retention and heat increase. In addition, ventilation pipes, electrical wiring sleeves and technical interlayers in the workshop collude with each other, which is easy to cause smoke and hot gas to spread rapidly to other rooms.

2, personnel escape difficulty.

Due to the requirements of the clean room process, the internal separation is complex, the channel is narrow and winding, the safety exit is less, the depth distance is long, the fire is easy to get lost after the fire, and the staff is less, the initial fire is difficult to find in time, and it is difficult to escape when the fireworks attack.

3. Smoke is highly toxic.

Some polymer synthetic materials are used in the interior decoration, which will produce a lot of smoke and send out poison gas when burning, which will bring great threat to the escape of personnel and fire fighting personnel.

4. Big losses.

There are often many extremely sophisticated and expensive equipment in clean rooms. The construction investment is large. In case of fire, the economic loss is huge.

In addition, some clean rooms are now used in the production process of methanol, acetone, toluene and other flammable and explosive chemical dangerous goods, which pose a potential fire threat to clean rooms.

Three, clean room building fire design should grasp the basic principles

According to the characteristics of the clean room and its fire characteristics, in order to protect people's lives and property safety, minimize the loss in the fire, and facilitate personnel evacuation and rescue, we should follow the following principles in building fire prevention design.

1. Fire resistance grade and fire prevention division

From many examples of clean room fire, it is not difficult to find that it is necessary to strictly control the fire resistance of the building. The fire resistance of the workshop is set as one or two in the design, so that the fire resistance of the building components can be adapted to the class A and B production workshop, thus greatly reducing the possibility of fire.

Limit the area between the firewall, set fire partition, one can control the spread of fire, reduce fire losses; Second, it is convenient for fire fighting, so that firefighters can easily find the fire source at the scene, but also easy to evacuate safely. Designers in the design should fully consider the characteristics of the clean room, strictly control the fire partition, make it meet the specification requirements, the current fire protection technical specifications have been put forward for clean room fire partition clear requirements, regulations, party a and b class production of clean room appropriate for single layer, its allowable building fire partition area, single-layer workshop appropriate for 3000 square meters, Multi-storey plant should be 2000 square meters; The maximum allowable floor area of fire prevention zones of clean rooms produced by class C, D and E shall comply with the provisions of the current Code for Fire Prevention in Building Design. In addition, we should also pay special attention to the roof and wall panels of the clean room, the partition between the clean production area and the general production interval, and the fire treatment of the technical shaft and other parts. It is required that the non-combustible material must be used, and the fire resistance limit must meet the requirements of the corresponding technical specifications.

2. Safe evacuation

In view of the characteristics of the clean room itself, we should fully consider the requirements of safe evacuation in the design, comprehensively analyze the evacuation flow, evacuation route, evacuation distance and other factors, through scientific calculation, select the best evacuation route, reasonably arrange the safety exit and evacuation channel, and establish a safe evacuation structure system. Make it meet the purification route from the production site to the safety exit without twists and turns. In addition, because the clean room is mostly in a closed state and the natural lighting condition is poor, fire accident lighting and emergency evacuation lighting must be set up in the workshop, and obvious evacuation indication signs should be set up at the corner of the safety exit, evacuation entrance and evacuation channel so that people can understand the direction and quickly evacuate the accident scene.

3. Heating, ventilation and smoke prevention and exhaust

Clean rooms are usually equipped with ventilation and air conditioning systems. The purpose is to ensure the air cleanliness of clean rooms in clean rooms, but it also brings a potential fire hazard. If the fire prevention treatment of ventilation and air conditioning system is improper, fireworks will spread around through the ventilation and air conditioning pipe network, causing the expansion of the fire. Therefore, we should design according to the specification requirements in the appropriate part of the ventilation and air conditioning pipe network reasonable set fire valve, and according to the requirements of the pipe network material, do a good job of pipe network through the wall, through the floor of the fire closure work, to prevent the spread of fire with ventilation and air conditioning system.

At the same time, because the clean room is relatively closed, it is not conducive to natural smoke extraction. The accident smoke exhaust system should be set up in the workshop, and the mechanical smoke exhaust system with positive pressure air supply should be set up on the evacuation walkway to ensure that the smoke can be quickly discharged from the room and not invade the evacuation walkway, so as to ensure that the personnel can evacuate the fire site safely and timely.

4. Fire fighting facilities

The clean room is equipped with fire water supply, fire extinguishing equipment and automatic fire alarm system according to the specification requirements, mainly in order to discover the fire in time and eliminate the fire accident in the initial stage. For clean rooms with technical interlayers and lower interlayers for return air space, we should consider when arranging alarm probes, which is more conducive to timely detection of fire. At the same time, for a clean room with a large number of precision and expensive equipment, we can also introduce the early warning air sampling vesda alarm system, 3 to 4 hours earlier than conventional alarm alarm, greatly improving the fire detection ability, so as to achieve timely found that rapid processing, to reduce fire loss to the minimum requirements.

5. Decoration project

In clean room decoration, we must pay attention to the combustion performance of decoration materials, try to reduce the use of some polymer synthetic materials, in order to avoid a lot of smoke when the fire occurs, which is not conducive to personnel escape. In addition, it is necessary to make strict requirements on the piping of electrical lines, and try to use steel pipes where conditions are available to ensure that electrical lines do not become the way of fire spread.